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Glycaemic Index of Milled Rice

 

Glycaemic Index of Brown Rice

 

Glycaemic Index of Glucose

 

 

REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATIONS ON GLYCARMIC INDEX OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF RICE

BACKDROP

There is a notion that rice and rice based foods are not desirable for consumption by diabetic persons. Uninformed persons often advise diabetic persons to switch to wheat based products. Rice is believed to result in rapid rise of blood glucose, a feature not desirable for diabetes management.

In Kerala, the traditional method of treating paddy is to steeple it in boiled water at least twice after which the paddy is dried and de-husked by manual pounding. Tradition has given away to industrial processing. The mechanical processing is generally adjusted to result in polished rice with very little brain on the surface. To provide the appearance of traditional hand polished rice, millers mix rice with bran before packing. This is pf little use to the consumer since the bran will be totally lost during the preliminary washing process.

The virtue of retaining as much bran in cereals for consumption is widely recognized. In addition to increasing the micronutrient content in the rice, the fibre rich bran also confers additional health benefits. Yet another advantage would be the effect of bran on the rate of carbohydrate digestion. Bran rich cereals would be digested and absorbed more slowly than milled varieties. The bran, therefore, will confer ad added advantage to the consumer. The people who most likely to benefit are persons with diabetics. Slow digestion and absorption of carbohydrates confer advantages in blood glucose control.

THE PRESENT STUDY

South Indian Rice Trading Company, Nagercoil; Tamil Nadu produce different varieties of rice, among which high bran varieties are the following: brown rice-double boiled and brown rice-single boiled. The first variety, brown rice is steamed twice and milled with the bran preserved. The second variety is steamed only once but milled with bran preserved. The manufacturers are exploring the possibility of show casting the high bran variety of rice as desirable for diabetics, who believe that wheat is a better option. Health Action by People was approached to assist them in TV commercials promoting the high bran rice, by leading HAP’s reputation. We felt that is unethical in the absence of evidence. We at HAP therefore suggested that a study may be conducted in which the capacity of the high bran rice to raise blood glucose may be compared with the ability of polished, milled rice to raise blood glucose after a meal. Both tests should also be compared with the glucose rise after a meal of pure glucose. In short, glycaemic index studies with high bran rice and compare results with that obtained with polished rice.

GLYCAEMIC INDEX

Glycaemic Index= Area under the curve for the experimental food x100
Area under the curve for glucose

THE CURRENT EVALUATION

Research Question

Would a study of glycaemic index, using 70 grams each of brown rice, milled rice and 50 grams of glucose, given to ten healthy young subjects on different days, reveal that brown rice has the lowest glycaemic index?

Subjects and methodology: Ten healthy volunteers, currently the staff of Health Action by People, constituted the experimental subjects. Each subject took part in each of three tests. In other words participants acted as their own controls. Each subject was given test meals comprising of brown rice, milled rice and glucose at three day intervals. Plasma glucose was estimated at 0, half, one, one and half and two hours of administration of the meal. Each test result was plotted on a graph paper after proper labeling.

Analysis

For purposes of the current assessment, values obtained for each type of meal in all ten subjects were averaged and the average values plotted on a graph paper. The area under the graph for each average curve was calculated. The values for milled rice and brown rice were expressed as percentage area under glucose.

Result

For purposes of convenience we have averaged the glucose levels from 0 hours to two hors at half hour intervals for all three tests via: milled rice, brown rice and pure glucose.(table 1). These values were plotted in graph paper and the areas under the curve calculated. Area under glucose was considered 100 and the areas under milled rice and brown rice worked out as percent of the area under glucose. The values for glycaemic index obtained for Brown rice and milled rice as follows.

Brown Rice:30.80
Milled Rice:52.40

Conclusion

Brown rice, as manufactured by South Indian Rice Trading Company has very low glycaemic index. Compared to Milled rice there is a further 40 percent in mean glucose rise after eating similar amounts. I have no hesitation in concluding that Brown rice ,South Indian Rice Trading Company is ideal to be positioned as the rice of choice for persons with glucose regulation impairment, including millions of diabetic individuals in south India.

Dr.C R Soman. B.Sc MD M.Sc
Professor of Nutrition(retd)
Chairman
Health Action by People
Trivandrum.

Annexure

Brown Rice Fasting Blood Sugar ˝Hour 1Hour 1˝ Hours 2 Hours
Minimum 76 90 87 83 81
Maximum 94 131 110 102 99
Mean 84.6 110.4 98.7 91.2 91.2
Standard Deviation 4.84 13.59 7.38 5.83 6.83


Brown Rice Fasting Blood Sugar ˝Hour 1Hour 1˝ Hours 2 Hours
Minimum 79 95 88 87 78
Maximum 97 165 151 143 123
Mean 86 133.0 113.5 105.5 103.5
Standard Deviation 5.21 24.75 19.35 20.62 12.66


Brown Rice Fasting Blood Sugar ˝Hour 1Hour 1˝ Hours 2 Hours
Minimum 77 91 84 80 70
Maximum 105 153 114 103 110
Mean 91.44 123.44 102.89 95.22 94.11
Standard Deviation 7.43 18.63 10.18 8.15 8.40


Study to find Glycemic Index of Brown Rice

Fasting

Descriptive Statistics

Fastings N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Brown-Rice Fasting 10 79 100 90.40 6.96
Glucose Fasting 9 75 98 88.56 6.75
Milled Rice Fasting 10 72 94 85.10 8.08
Valid N(listwise) 9


1/2 hour after consumption

Descriptive Statistics

Fastings N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Brown-Rice Fasting 10 99 160 128.50 19.27
Glucose Fasting 9 101 174 145.67 22.77
Milled Rice Fasting 10 91 153 122.30 19.22
Valid N(listwise) 9


1 hour after consumption

Descriptive Statistics

Fastings N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Brown-Rice Fasting 10 76 144 103.00 20.53
Glucose Fasting 9 93 197 136.11 32.11
Milled Rice Fasting 10 76 146 106.20 20.18
Valid N(listwise) 9


1 1/2 hour after consumption

Descriptive Statistics

Fastings N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Brown-Rice Fasting 10 71 117 93.60 11.88
Glucose Fasting 9 93 183 120.89 30.85
Milled Rice Fasting 10 78 138 100.90 17.74
Valid N(listwise) 9


2 hours after consumption

Descriptive Statistics

Fastings N Minimum Maximum Mean Std.Deviation
Brown-Rice Fasting 10 76 109 90.60 9.75
Glucose Fasting 9 85 156 114.11 24.22
Milled Rice Fasting 10 85 126 97.70 13.86
Valid N(listwise) 9
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